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Generating PDF with Apache FOP and Maven. An example and some tricks.

This January (and, actually, February) I worked on generating PDF files. During the investigation process, we’ve chosen Apache FOP as a free powerful tool for this task.

Firstly I wanted to write a step by step guide on how to generate a PDF file from a Java object. But eventually, I decided to keep it short, as the original documentation contains almost all you need.

So in this blog I’ll describe some interesting moments that I met during the development phase.

Also, I’ve prepared an example project, feel free to clone and play around:

Adding custom fonts to FOP

Adding fonts is pretty simple. I used an XML config, so I will show how to do that in XML:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<fop version="1.0">
    <!-- Simple FOP XML config -->
    <default-page-settings height="11.00in" width="8.50in"/>
        <renderer mime="application/pdf">
                <font kerning="yes" embed-url="path/to/Roboto-Regular.ttf" embedding-mode="subset">
                    <font-triplet name="Roboto" style="normal" weight="normal"/>
                <font kerning="yes" embed-url="path/to/Roboto-Bold.ttf" embedding-mode="subset">
                    <font-triplet name="Roboto" style="normal" weight="Bold"/>

Then we can use the font by setting the font-family attribute:

<fo:root font-family="Roboto">
        This font is regular.
        <fo:inline font-weight="bold">This font is bold.</fo:inline>

How to use WOFF fonts with Apache FOP?

I didn’t find the answer to this question. But I’ve found a good WOFF to OTF conversion tool! Here it is:
OTF fonts work fine with FOP.

How to access fonts from resources in a JAR?

At some time I realized that all the fonts are placed in a JAR file and other resources like images from external servers are not. To solve this problem I have created a custom ResourceResolver implementation:

    public final class CustomPathResolver implements ResourceResolver {
        private static final String FONTS_FOLDER = "/fonts/";

        private ResourceResolver defaultResourceResolver = ResourceResolverFactory.createDefaultResourceResolver();

        public Resource getResource(URI uri) throws IOException {
            if (uri.toString().contains(FONTS_FOLDER)) {
                return new Resource(PdfGenerator.class.getResourceAsStream(FONTS_FOLDER + FilenameUtils.getName(uri.toString())));
            } else {
                return new Resource(uri.toURL().openStream());

        public OutputStream getOutputStream(URI uri) throws IOException {
            return defaultResourceResolver.getOutputStream(uri);

This ResourceResolver checks whether the requested resource is in the “fonts” folder and if so, we are looking for a resource in the classpath.
To use this ResourceResolver we should manually specify it during the FopFactoryBuilder creation.

DefaultConfigurationBuilder cfgBuilder = new DefaultConfigurationBuilder();
try {
    Configuration config =;
    FopFactoryBuilder factoryBuilder = new FopFactoryBuilder(new File(CURRENT_DIR).toURI(), new CustomPathResolver()).setConfiguration(config);
    fopFactory =;
} catch (Exception e) {
    // handling the error

Apache FOP cannot load images via HTTPS

In my case, the root cause was the SSLHandshakeException. My server didn’t trust the server that hosted the image. I wouldn’t do that neither!

This problem has at least three solutions: the best, a good one and the one I had to use.

The best solution: use a certificate issued by a well known CA on the server that hosts your images.

A good solution: add the server’s certificate to your keystore.

The last solution is to disable checking certificate validity at all. This is not recommended, as you become vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.
To do this, you should implement a new TrustManager and a HostnameVerifier, initialize an SSLContext and set the HostnameVerifier to the HttpsURLConnection (which is used internally by Apache FOP).

static {
    TrustManager[] trustAllCerts = new TrustManager[] {new X509TrustManager() {
        public[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
            return null;
        public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs, String authType) {
        public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs, String authType) {

    SSLContext sc = SSLContext.getInstance("SSL");
    sc.init(null, trustAllCerts, new;

    HostnameVerifier allHostsValid = new HostnameVerifier() {
        public boolean verify(String hostname, SSLSession session) {
            return true;

I think that’s it and I hope this helps. 🙂

Achievement unlocked. Sololearn Java certificate.

Sololearn Java course

Yesterday I finished a Java course with the Sololearn iPhone appilcation. Just for fun. I had some free time and decided, why not to study Java on my mobile phone, so that’s how I found this app. What can I say about it? It gives very little knowledge about Java.

There are 6 sections in this course: basic concepts, conditionals and loops, arrays, classes and objects, more on classes, and the last one, exceptions, lists, threads and files. Each section contain a small piece of theory and some ordinary practical tasks. I wonder, how have developers decided to combine such large themes as collections and threads (and exceptions and files)?

I don’t know what’s the target audience of this app. If you’re a beginner, you probably shouldn’t download it, because it’d be better to read some good Java books. The application can’t give you even 1/10 of needed knowledge. If you have some Java experience, you probably won’t discover anything new.

My mark: ❤️❤️❤️💙💙💙💙💙💙💙

Programming competition and a small Java task

Last week we had a programming competition at work which consisted of some small tasks. One of them was to check, if we can make a given string palindrome by adding one letter in any place. Shame on me, I didn’t manage with this task in time. However I got the third place in this competition. 🏆😁

So the task:
Your app should check, if it’s possible to make a palindrome by adding a lowercase English letter to a given string in any position. If it is, the application should return an index which points to where to put a character, otherwise the app should return -1.
The given string contains only lowercase Latin characters.

What is a palindrome? Palindrome is a word or a number, which reads the same backward and forward. For example:

  • Was it a car or a cat I saw?
  • 1234321
  • Step on no pets

See the solution.

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