Skip to content

Java Core

Describing the Java Deque collection interface

A Deque is a double-ended-queue. It is a collection of elements that supports the insertion and removal of elements at both end points. It implements both Stack and Queue at the same time. This interface defines following methods:

  • void addFirst(E e)
  • void addLast(E e)
  • boolean offerFirst(E e)
  • boolean offerLast(E e)
  • E removeFirst()
  • E removeLast()
  • E pollFirst()
  • E pollLast()
  • E getFirst()
  • E getLast()
  • E peekFirst()
  • E peekLast()
  • boolean removeFirstOccurence(Object o)
  • boolean removeLastOccurence(Object o)
  • + methods from Queue interface

Read More →

Describing the Java Queue collection interface

A Queue is a collection for holding elements prior to processing. It provides additional insertion, removal and inspection operations:

  • E element()
  • boolean offer(E e)
  • E peek()
  • E poll()
  • E remove()

The general-purpose implementation of Queue is LinkedList.

Each Queue method exists in two forms: one throws an exception when fails, and the other returns a special value when fails (null or false, depending on return type).
Methods that will throw an exception: add, element, remove.
Methods that will return a special value: offer, peek, poll.

Queues typically (but not necessarily) order elements in a FIFO manner, which stands for First In – First Out. In this case all new elements are inserted at the tail of the queue. Other kinds of queues may use different insertion rules.
If we need to control elements ordering we can use PriorityQueue that stores the elements in natural order or uses Comparator or Comparable to define the right order.

Describing the Java Set collection interface

A Set is a Collection that cannot contain duplicates. The Set interface extends Collection interface but has no specific methods. It adds the restriction that duplicates are prohibited. This interface also adds a stronger contract on the behavior of the equals and the hashcode methods, allowing Set instances to be compared meaningfully even if their implementation types differ. The two Set instances are equal if they contain the same elements.

JCF contains three general-purpose Set implementations: HashSet, LinkedHashSet and TreeSet. They are all based on HashMap, LinkedHashMap and TreeMap correspondly. When you add an element, it stores as a “key” of inner Map, and the value is always a dummy object.

HashSet which is the best-performing implementation, stores its elements in a hash table. HashSet doesn’t care about ordering elements. If you need to order your elements, consider using use TreeSet, which stores its elements in a red-black tree and uses comparators. However, if you want to store your elements in order they were inserted, consider using LinkedHashSet.

Describing the Java List collection interface

List is an ordered collection that can contain duplicates. In addition to the Collection interface methods, the List interface includes the following:

  • Positional access: manipulating the elements by their index in the list. This includes methods such as: get, set, add, addAll, remove.
  • Search: methods indexOf and lastIndexOf search for a specified object in the list and return its index.
  • Iteration: extends Iterator semantics to take advantage of the list’s sequential nature. With ListIterator you can traverse the list in either direction, modify list during iteration and obtain the current position of the iterator. The listIterator methods provide this behavior.
  • Range-view: the sublist method returns a sublist with a specified range of elements.

There are two general-purpose List implementations: ArrayList, which is based on an array, and which is usually the better-performing, and LinkedList, which offers better performance under certain circumstances.

What data can be stored in a collection?

You can store anything but primitives. To store primitives consider using wrappers (Integer for int, Double for double, etc…).
For example, you can store your own classes:

List<MyClass> myClassObjects = new LinkedList<MyClass>();

To store primitives:

Set<Integer> ints = new TreeSet<Integer>();

Notice, that you can add primitives, since it will be wrapped automatically:

ints.add(1); // Correct

What benefits does JCF provide?

JCF provides the following benefits:

  • Reduces programming effort: you don’t need to invent the wheel anymore, JCF provides useful data structures and algorithms.
  • Increases program speed and quality: JCF provides high-performance, high-quality implementations of useful data structures and algorithms. Programs can be easily tuned by switching collection implementation. It is possible because interface implementations are interchangeable. When you use the Collections Framework you don’t need to waste time by writing your own data structures, so you’ll have more time to write and improve your business logic.
  • Allows interoperability among unrelated APIs: you can use collections in different applications and be sure that it will work fine. You can exchange your collections between applications seamlessly.
  • Reduces effort to learn and to use new APIs: many APIs take collections on input and return them as output. In the past, each API could implement its own collections and you needed to learn it. Now we have a universal solution – JCF.
  • Reduces effort to design new APIs: this is the reverse side of the previous benefit. A programmer don’t have to invent and to implement his own collections.
  • Fosters software reuse: if you implement your own collection with a JCF interface, you will get a reusable code. You can use collections utilities on your implementation as well.

Whas is a collection?

Collection is an object that groups multiple elements into a single unit. Collections are used to store, retrieve and manipulate data.
Live example: several Employee objects can be grouped into a collection:

List<Employee> employees = new ArrayList<Employee>();
employees.add(new Employee(“John”));
employees.add(new Employee(“Mary”));

Java has a Java Collection Framework (JCF), which consists of:

Read More →

Java exceptions handling order

Consider there is a method which can throw IOException and FileNotFoundException. Is there a difference in which order we catch these exceptions in a single try-catch block?
Will this code work correctly?

try {
    // potential FileNotFoundException or IOException
} catch (IOException e) {
    // handling IOException
} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
    // handling FileNotFoundException

Read More →